Cloud Build uses Docker containers to run everything. This means it can run almost any language/program or application including R. Having an easy way to create and trigger these builds from R means R can serve as a UI or gateway to any other program e.g. R can trigger a Cloud Build using gcloud to deploy Cloud Run applications.

The first 120 mins per day are free. See here for more priceinfo.

If you want to run scripts that can be triggered one time, batch style, and set them up to trigger on GitHub events or pub/sub, or schedule them using Cloud Scheduler then Cloud Build is suited to your use case.

If you would also like to have your R code react in real-time to events such as HTTP events, such as a website or API endpoint, consider Cloud Run.

PubSub events can also trigger builds via Build Triggers which is good for long-running tasks in reaction to events such as a Cloud Storage file being uploaded, various events around Google Cloud such as billing alerts and via custom metrics set up in Cloud Logging for practically any logged event on Google Cloud.

An overview of the various functions and how they combine with each other and later functions is shown in this diagram:

The cloudbuild.yaml format

Cloud Build is centered around the cloudbuild.yaml format - you can use existing cloudbuild.yaml files or create your own in R using the cloudbuild.yaml helper functions.

An example cloudbuild.yaml is shown below - this outputs the versions of docker and echos “Hello Cloud Build” and calls an R function:

- name: ''
  id: Docker Version
  args: ["version"]
- name: 'alpine'
  id:  Hello Cloud Build
  args: ["echo", "Hello Cloud Build"]
- name: 'rocker/r-base'
  id: Hello R
  args: ["R", "-e", "paste0('1 + 1 = ', 1+1)"]

This cloudbuild.yaml file can be built directly via the cr_build() function. The build will by default trigger a website URL to open with the build logs.

b1 <- cr_build("cloudbuild.yaml")

Or you can choose to wait in R for the build to finish, like below:

b2 <- cr_build("cloudbuild.yaml", launch_browser = FALSE)
b3 <- cr_build_wait(b2)
# Waiting for build to finish:
#  |===||
# Build finished
# ==CloudBuildObject==
# buildId:  c673143a-794d-4c69-8ad4-e777d068c066 
# status:  SUCCESS 
# logUrl: 
# ...

You can export an existing build into a cloudbuild.yaml file, for instance to run in another project not using R.

cr_build_write(b3, file = "cloudbuild.yml")

Constructing Cloud Build objects

There are several layers to creating Cloud Build objects in R:

  • cr_build() triggers the API with Cloud Build objects and cloudbuild.yaml files
  • cr_build_yaml() lets you create the Cloud Build objects in R and can write to .yaml files.
  • cr_build_make() creates Cloud Build R objects directly from .yaml files
  • cr_buildstep() lets you create specific steps within the Cloud Build objects. There are helper template files with common tasks such as cr_buildstep_r()

For common use cases the cr_deploy_* functions use the above functions with some sensible defaults to quickly run use cases for you:

Some of the above are also available in an RStudio gadget.

The deploy functions call the underlying cloud build functions, so if they don’t suit you can also customise by using those. An overview on what the deploy functions use is below:

Docker images to use in Cloud Build

Any utility that has a Docker image can be used within Cloud Build steps.

Official Google images for the gcloud, bq and gsutil are here:

Some community contributed Cloud Build images are listed here, including hugo, make, and tar, or you can configure your own Dockerfile and build what image you need yourself, perhaps by using a previous Cloud Build and cr_deploy_docker()

Cloud Build source

Cloud Builds sometimes need code or data to work on to be useful.

All cloudbuilds are launched in a serverless environment with a default directory /workspace/. The Source is copied into this workspace before the build steps execute, so steps can share state and files. Cloud Build sources are specified by the source argument.

A source can be a Cloud Source Repository (perhaps mirrored from GitHub) or a Cloud Storage bucket containing the code/data you want to operate on. An example of specifying both is below:

gcs_source <- cr_build_source(
  StorageSource("gs://my-bucket", "my_code.tar.gz"))
repo_source <- cr_build_source(

build1 <- cr_build("cloudbuild.yaml", source = gcs_source)
build2 <- cr_build("cloudbuild.yaml", source = repo_source)

cr_build_upload_gcs() is a helper function for automating creation of a Google Cloud Storage source - this uses googleCloudStorageR to tar and upload your source code locally to your bucket, making it available to your build.

This returns a Source object that can be used in build functions:

storage <- cr_build_upload_gcs("my_folder")
cr_build(my_yaml, source = storage)

By default this will place your local folder’s contents in the /workspace/deploy/ folder. For buildsteps to access those files you may want to add dir="deploy" to them so they will have their working directory start from there, but to be more consistent with Build triggers (that always use sources in the root /workspace directory) a helpful build step can move that deploy folder into root - see cr_buildstep_source_move() which is intended to be the first buildstep of a build in those situations you want to move deploy folders.

Cloud Build default substitutions

Cloud Builds can use reserved default substitutions to help with deployments in a continuous development situation. For instance, files can be named according to the Git branch they are committed from. These are listed in Google docs here and reproduced below:

  • $PROJECT_ID: the project ID of the build.
  • $BUILD_ID: the autogenerated ID of the build.
  • $REPO_NAME: the source repository name specified by RepoSource.
  • $LOCATION: the region of your build
  • $BRANCH_NAME: the branch name specified by RepoSource.
  • $TAG_NAME: the tag name specified by RepoSource.
  • $REVISION_ID or $COMMIT_SHA: the commit SHA specified by RepoSource or resolved from the specified branch or tag.
  • $SHORT_SHA: first 7 characters of $REVISION_ID or $COMMIT_SHA.
  • $TRIGGER_BUILD_CONFIG_PATH: path to the build config file, by default /cloudbuild.yaml

There are also some GitHub specific substitutions, used mostly in Build Triggers we detail later on.

  • $_HEAD_BRANCH : head branch of the pull request
  • $_BASE_BRANCH : base branch of the pull request
  • $_HEAD_REPO_URL : url of the head repo of the pull request
  • $_PR_NUMBER : number of the pull request

Custom macros can also be configured, starting with _$ e.g. $_MY_CUSTOM_MACRO - see the Google help files on how to handle those.

Creating cloudbuild.yml build steps

Instead of using separate cloudbuild.yml files, you can also choose to make your own cloudbuild.yaml files in R via cr_build_yaml() and cr_buildstep()

Lets say you don’t want to write a cloudbuild.yaml file manually - instead you can create all the features of the yaml files in R. Refer to the cloudbuild.yml config spec on what is expected in the files or functions.

An example below recreates a simple cloudbuild.yml file. If you print it to console it will output what the build would look like if it was in a yaml file:

cr_build_yaml(steps = cr_buildstep( "gcloud","version"))
#- name:
#  args: version

You can write back out into your own cloudbuild.yml

my_yaml <- cr_build_yaml(steps = cr_buildstep( "gcloud","version"))
cr_build_write(my_yaml, file = "cloudbuild.yaml")

And also edit or extract steps from existing cloudbuild.yml files via cr_buildstep_edit() and cr_buildstep_extract().

This allows you to programmatically create cloudbuild yaml files for other languages and triggers. See more at this article on creating custom build steps with your own Docker images.

Pre-made Build Step templates

Using the above build step editing functions, some helpful build steps you can use in your own cloudbuild steps have been included in the package.

If you have any requests for others, please raise an issue on GitHub.

Combine buildsteps with c() e.g.

      steps = c(
        cr_buildstep("ubuntu", "echo hello"),
        cr_buildstep_docker("my-image", tag="dev"),
      images = "")

The cr_buildstep_* functions are all calling cr_buildstep() with helpful defaults, for example these are equivalent:

cr_buildstep_bash("echo hello world")
#name: ubuntu
#- bash
#- -c
#- echo hello world
cr_buildstep("ubuntu", args = c("bash", "-c", "echo hello world"), prefix = "")
#name: ubuntu
#- bash
#- -c
#- echo hello world

To further aid deployments the cr_deploy_* functions take some common tasks and use the buildsteps above, in some cases also creating a build trigger or schedule.

Build Artifacts

You may have some useful files or data after your buildsteps run that you want to use later. You can specify these files as artifacts that will be uploaded to a Google Cloud Storage bucket after the build finishes. A helper function cr_build_artifacts() will take your build object and download the files to your local directory via googleCloudStorageR

r <- "write.csv(mtcars,file = 'artifact.csv')"
ba <- cr_build_yaml(
     steps = cr_buildstep_r(r),
     artifacts = cr_build_yaml_artifact('artifact.csv')

build <- cr_build(ba)
built <- cr_build_wait(build)

# 2019-12-22 12:36:10 -- Saved artifact.csv to artifact.csv (1.7 Kb)

#                     X  mpg cyl  disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
#1            Mazda RX4 21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
#2        Mazda RX4 Wag 21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
#3           Datsun 710 22.8   4 108.0  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
#4       Hornet 4 Drive 21.4   6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
# ... etc ...

Other common artifacts are Docker images that your build has created. These are usually uploaded automatically to Container Registry, if say you are using cr_deploy_docker().

Build Logs

You can view the logs of the build locally in R using cr_build_logs() if you pass it a build object, such as from cr_build_wait() (causes R to wait for build to finish) or cr_build_status() (checks on build status)

s_yaml <- cr_build_yaml(steps = cr_buildstep( "gcloud","version"))
build <- cr_build_make(s_yaml)

built <- cr_build(build)

the_build <- cr_build_wait(built)

# [1] "starting build \"6ce86e05-b0b1-4070-a849-05ec9020fd3b\""       
# [2] ""                                                              
# [3] "FETCHSOURCE"                                                   
# [4] "BUILD"                                                         
# [5] "Already have image (with digest):"
# [6] "Google Cloud SDK 325.0.0"                                      
# [7] "alpha 2021.01.22"                                              
# [8] "app-engine-go 1.9.71"        
# ...

RStudio Gadget - build Docker

If you are using RStudio, installing the library will enable an RStudio Addin that can be called after you have setup the library as per the setup page.

It includes a Shiny gadget that you can call via the Addin menu in RStudio, via googleCloudRunner::cr_deploy_gadget() or assigned to a hotkey (I use CTRL+SHIFT+D).

This sets up a Shiny UI to help smooth out deployments as pictured:

R buildsteps

Focusing on one buildstep in particular, since this is an R package - you can send in R code into a build trigger using cr_buildstep_r().

It accepts both inline R code or a file location. This R code is executed in the R environment as specified in argument name - they default to the R images provided by Rocker

If you want to build your own images (in perhaps another Cloud Build using cr_deploy_docker()) you can use your own R images with custom R packages and resources.

Some useful R images have been made you could use or refer to their Dockerfiles for:

  • - installs: devtools covr rhub pkgdown goodpractice httr plumber rmarkdown
  • - installs: pkgdown rmarkdown flexdashboard blogdown bookdown
  • - installs: containerit, googleCloudStorageR, plumber, googleCloudRunner

The R code can be created within the Build at build time, or you can refer to an existing R script within the Source.

# create an R buildstep inline
cr_buildstep_r(c("paste('1+1=', 1+1)", "sessionInfo()"))

# create an R buildstep from a local file

# create an R buildstep from a file within the source of the Build
cr_buildstep_r("inst/schedule/schedule.R", r_source = "runtime")

# use a different Rocker image e.g. rocker/verse
cr_buildstep_r(c("library(dplyr)", "mtcars %>% select(mpg)", "sessionInfo"),
                name = "verse")

# use your own R image with custom R
my_r <- c("devtools::install()", "pkgdown::build_site()")
br <-  cr_buildstep_r(my_r, name= "")

# send it for building

Build Triggers

Once you have build steps and possibly a source created, you can either set these up to run on a schedule via cr_schedule() or you can use triggers that will run upon certain events.

Setting up Build Triggers in the Web UI

The quickest way to get going is to use the web UI for Build Triggers (

  1. Link your repo (GitHub, Bitbucket or Cloud Repositories) to Google
  2. Create your Cloud Build using cr_build_yaml() etc.
  3. Write out to a cloudbuild.yml file in your repository (by default the root directory is checked)
  4. Setup the Build Trigger in the Web UI (
  5. Make a git commit and check the Cloud Build has run in the history (
  6. Modify the cloudbuild.yml file as you need, recommit to trigger a new build.

Learn how to set them up at this Google article on creating and managing build triggers.

From there you get the option of connecting a repository either by mirroring it from GitHub/Bitbucket or using Cloud Source Repositories.

You can setup either Docker builds by just providing the location of the Dockerfile, or have more control by providing a cloudbuild.yml - by default these are looked for in the root directory.

Here are some example for this package’s GitHub repo:

  • The “do package checks” performs authenticated tests against the package
  • The “git auth and push pkgdown website” rebuilds the website each commit to master branch.
  • “Build a dockerfile for package builds” builds the image
  • “pushGoogleCloudRunnerToGcerPublic” builds the image

Build Triggers via code

Once you know how to make Build Triggers in the Web UI, you may want to move into doing them within R. This lets you scale quickly applications and are using in some of the cr_deploy_*() functions such as cr_deploy_docker_trigger().

Build Triggers can be made via R code using the cr_buildtrigger() function.

Build Triggers can execute on some useful triggers:

  • GitHub commits and pull requests
  • PubSub triggers such as when a file hits Cloud Storage
  • Webhook triggers responding to 3rd party applications

The example below shows how to set up some of the builds used in the examples above:

# get an existing cloudbuild.yaml file
cloudbuild <- system.file("cloudbuild/cloudbuild.yaml",
                            package = "googleCloudRunner")
# import the build into R
bb <- cr_build_make(cloudbuild, projectId = "test-project")

# specify the GitHub repo the trigger will react to
github <- cr_buildtrigger_repo("MarkEdmondson1234/googleCloudRunner", branch = "master")

# create the build trigger
cr_buildtrigger(bb, name = "trig1", trigger = github)

This build trigger will then build upon each git commit.

Build substitutions can also be configured by them into the substitutions argument:

# creates a trigger with named substitutions
ss <- list(`$_MYVAR` = "TEST1", `$_GITHUB` = "MarkEdmondson1234/googleCloudRunner")

# a buildtrigger with parametised substitutions
cr_buildtrigger("trig2", trigger = github, build = bb, substitutions = ss)

The above examples will create the build step in-line within the trigger, but you can also specify cloudbuild.yaml files by specifying the path to where in the repository the build file will be:

# create a trigger that will build from the file in the repo
cr_buildtrigger("cloudbuild.yaml", name = "trig3", trigger = github)

This way you can commit changes to the cloudbuild.yaml file, and they will be reflected in the Build Trigger.

Connecting to GitHub

You can connect via the Source Repository mirroring service or via the Google Cloud Build GitHub app - see the git setup page for more details.

Combining buildsteps from triggers with other builds

It may be you want to combine build steps from across buildtriggers. For example, you have a Docker build triggers and want to add some steps that use that Docker image after its been built.

You can extract the buildsteps from deployed buildtriggers to combine them and avoid having two builds.

For example, say you have deployed a Dockerfile trigger:

repo <- cr_buildtrigger_repo("your-github/your-repo")

# first time - by default will be called "docker-{image}"
cr_deploy_docker_trigger(repo, image = "my-build")

If you want to extract the docker buildsteps you can find it in dock_build$build$steps below:

# get the buildtrigger details
dock_build <- cr_buildtrigger_get("docker-my-build")

# contains the buildsteps from the deployment

You can then combine those buildsteps in the usual way with other buildsteps. The example below assumes you’ve made an R docker image with some of your custom dependencies that you then want to immediately run your R code within:

# uses the docker image previously created
my_r_step <- cr_buildstep_r(r = "my_r_code.R", name = "docker-my-build")

# combine the buildsteps
new_buildsteps <- c(dock_build$build$steps, my_r_step)

# remake the build yaml
yml <- cr_build_yaml(new_buildsteps)

You can then reconfigure the build trigger with your new build yaml. The below writes the yaml to a file to be read by the build trigger:

# write it out to the git repo we are in
cr_build_write(yml, "new_buildsteps.yml")

repo <- cr_buildtrigger_repo("your-github/your-repo")

# overwrite the deployed build trigger to read the yml
  name = "docker-my-build",
  trigger = repo,
  overwrite = TRUE

Pub/Sub Triggered Cloud Builds

You can configure your build triggers to run from PubSub events. These events are generated from a lot of different services around GCP, such as when a file hits Cloud Storage, when certain events occur in Cloud Logging, or when your budget alerts fire. Triggering a Cloud Build can allow complex workflows responding to these events, including picking up data from the PubSub message to parametrise your code via Substitutions.

See the Creating Pub/Sub triggers documentation on how to do this in the WebUI and gcloud.

Below is an example that uses googlePubSubR to create and send a message to PubSub, but any other service that publishes to PubSub could be used.

For this example, the substitution variables will take its data from the PubSub message content. It will look within the variable, where x is the field sent in the pubsub message. See how to use these payload bindings in other ways at the Google documentation.

The cloud build yaml looks like:

- name: 'alpine'
  id:  Hello Cloud Build
  args: ["echo", "Hello Cloud Build"]
- name: 'rocker/r-base'
  id: Hello R
  args: ["Rscript", "-e", "paste0('From PubSub message field1:', '${_VAR1}')"]
  _VAR1: '$('

Note _VAR1 which will be filled in with the var1 field coming from the PubSub message.

# create build object
cloudbuild <- system.file("cloudbuild/cloudbuild_substitutions.yml",
                           package = "googleCloudRunner")
the_build <- cr_build_make(cloudbuild)


We then create the topic if it does not exist already:

# create pub/sub topic if needed

We now use the function cr_buildtrigger_pubsub() to construct the trigger for the Cloud Build.

# create build trigger that will work from pub/subscription
pubsub_trigger <- cr_buildtrigger_pubsub("test-topic")
cr_buildtrigger(the_build, name = "pubsub-triggered-subs", trigger = pubsub_trigger)
#id:  b7fb7d8d-534d-4408-9e0c-154be6577a7f 
#name:  pubsub-triggered-subs 
#createdTime:  2021-11-26T21:39:23.714950565Z 
#_VAR1 :  $( 
#- name: alpine
#  args:
#  - echo
#  - Hello Cloud Build
#  id: Hello Cloud Build
#- name: rocker/r-base
#  args:
#  - Rscript
#  - -e
#  - paste0('From PubSub message field1:', '${_VAR1}')
#  id: Hello R

The build trigger should now be deployed and available in your Cloud Console.

We now simulate a PubSub message coming in with the var1 field filled. In real applications this PubSub trigger could come from another system, Cloud Storage files, or other R scripts.

PubSub requires the message to be JSON and base64 encoded, so we use library(jsonlite) to do this and library(googlePubsubR) again to send the message:

# make base64 encoded json
message <- toJSON(list(var1 = "hello mum"))
send_me <- msg_encode(message)

# send the message!
topics_publish(PubsubMessage(send_me), "test-topic")

You should now see the Cloud Build start in your GCP console. You can check the logs for the build after it has run to see if it worked:

# did it work?

# yep!
#[55] "Step #1 - \"Hello R\": Status: Downloaded newer image for rocker/r-base:latest"                                  
#[56] "Step #1 - \"Hello R\":"                                                           
#[57] "Step #1 - \"Hello R\": [1] \"From PubSub message field1:[\\\"hello mum\\\"]\""                                   
#[58] "Finished Step #1 - \"Hello R\""                                                                                  
#[59] "PUSH"                                                                                                            
#[60] "DONE"                                                                                                            

See also cr_schedule_pubsub() which can use PubSub to trigger scheduled builds. There is a guide using that within Cloud Scheduler to trigger Build Triggers via Pubsub

Targets Integration

The targets package is a data pipeline toolkit for R which allows for reproducible workflows without having to run the entire pipeline each time. You can use it to create a graph of dependencies (directional acyclic graphs, or DAG).

It is convenient to have these pipelines run in the cloud and in a serverless manner in particular which googleCloudRunner facilitates via the cr_build_targets() function. Since the pipeline can run in a Cloud Build, you do not need to have your local machine on to run the pipeline. Cloud Build allows up to 24hrs timeout values for the build, and costs are much lower than having a dedicated computing cluster as you are only charged for the time the job is running.

The integration looks through your existing targets pipeline and creates the appropriate build steps for your build, reusing the functions and target meta data in your local folder. By selecting to run on Cloud Build, the local targets metadata folder is uploaded to Cloud Storage, used to coordinate the different target pipeline steps (targets) and then downloads the results back to your local session.

The cr_buildsteps_targets() function is the base buildstep you can use to create your workflows. Its more likely you will use the cr_buildstep_targets_multi() function which will use these buildsteps to create your pipeline, including trying to optimise the running time as much as possible by setting up concurrent execution if possible.

In general the integration takes care of these steps:

  1. Scan your system for the targets workflow
  2. Creates a Cloud Build yaml that will execute the workflow
  3. Uploads target metadata file (usually with _targets/meta) to a Cloud Storage bucket
  4. Executes the build, skipping any unnecessary steps and running concurrently if possible
  5. Uploads the results to Cloud Storage
  6. Downloads from Cloud Storage to your local session if required

You will need to create an R based Dockerfile to run the target functions within, including at least targets and any other libraries you need for your functions to execute. By default it will use which is an image containing targets only.

An overview of the targets functions is shown below:

Targets pipeline example

The below example shows a minimal use case of running the pipeline immediately:

write.csv(mtcars, file = "mtcars.csv", row.names = FALSE)

      "mtcars.csv", format = "file"),
      paste(result1, result2, result3, result4))
 ask = FALSE)

bs <- cr_buildstep_targets_multi()

# run it immediately in cloud
cr_build_targets(bs, execute="now")

The target pipeline is represented by this DAG (generated by targets::tar_visnetwork())

When you issue cr_buildstep_targets_multi() the targets DAG is analysed and used to create the buildsteps:

bs <- cr_buildstep_targets_multi()
#ℹ 2022-01-20 15:26:56 > targets cloud location: gs://your-bucket/your-project
#ℹ 2022-01-20 15:26:56 > Resolving targets::tar_manifest()
#── # Building DAG: ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
#• [get previous _targets metadata] -> [file1]
#• [file1] -> [input1]
#• [input1] -> [result1]
#• [input1] -> [result2]
#• [input1] -> [result3]
#• [input1] -> [result4]
#• [result1, result2, result3, result4] -> [merge1]
#• [merge1] -> [ Upload Artifacts ]

The [get previous _targets metadata] buildstep is boilerplate generated by cr_buildstep_targets_setup(), whilst [ Upload Artifacts ] is the one generated by cr_buildstep_targets_teardown().

The DAG is created by populating the id and waitFor arguments within a cr_buildstep(). These buildsteps could be used directly in cr_build() but you would need to handle uploading the data sources etc. which is what cr_build_targets() helps with.

Passing these buildsteps into cr_build_targets() allows you to select execute="now" which will run the pipeline immediately. execute="trigger" will only create the YAML for you to use in constructing a buildstep.

cr_build_targets(bs, execute="now") will start off a build like the below example:

cr_build_targets(bs, execute="now")

── # Uploading . to gs://your-buucket/.20220120152659.tar.gz ───────────────────────
2022-01-20 15:27:00 > Tarring files in tmpdir:
• _pkgdown.yml
• _targets.R
• etc ...


ℹ Cloud Build started - logs:


2022-01-20 15:28:42 > targets cloud location: gs://your-bucket//your-local
2022-01-20 15:28:42 > Downloading to download_folder: /your-local/_targets
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/buildtime.txt to _targets/buildtime.txt  ( 29 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/meta/meta to _targets/meta/meta  ( 1 Kb )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/meta/process to _targets/meta/process  ( 56 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/meta/progress to _targets/meta/progress  ( 271 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/objects/input1 to _targets/objects/input1  ( 861 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/objects/merge1 to _targets/objects/merge1  ( 77 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/objects/result1 to _targets/objects/result1  ( 52 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/objects/result2 to _targets/objects/result2  ( 52 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local//_targets/objects/result3 to _targets/objects/result3  ( 52 bytes )
✓ Saved /your-local/_targets/objects/result4 to _targets/objects/result4  ( 52 bytes )

── # Built targets on Cloud Build with status: SUCCESS ─────────────────────────
2022-01-20 15:28:44 > Build artifacts downloaded to /your-local/_targets

Inspecting your local _targets metadata (via targets::tar_meta() or otherwise) should confirm the steps have been updated via the Cloud Build code.

Scheduling or triggering your targets pipeline

As the targets are running within a Cloud Build, all the usual methods of triggering a build are available via Build Triggers. This includes executing in response to events such as a Cloud Storage bucket being updated with a file, a GitHub commit, a PubSub event or a scheduled PubSub call.

Since pipelines are normally waiting for Cloud Storage files or say BigQuery table uploads, the new PubSub triggers for build Triggers are particularly convenient, since they can trigger on pretty much any event within GCP via Cloud Logging sinks.

The example below will use a GitHub source and trigger upon a scheduled PubSub event.

Creating a scheduled targets pipeline

The Cloud Build will be the same as the example above, only this time we select execute="trigger"

cr_build_targets(bs, execute="trigger")
2022-01-20 16:18:28 > Writing to cloudbuild_targets.yaml

The cloudbuild_targets.yaml file will sit in the same GitHub repo as the target pipeline, and all shall be commit to GitHub.

The PubSub topic can be an existing one but for this example we create our own via googlePubsubR and schedule a hit to it every 24hrs at 0415.

topic <- topics_create("target_pubsub_schedule")

schedule_me <- cr_schedule_pubsub(topic)

            schedule = "15 4 * * *", 
            pubsubTarget = schedule_me)

Now the PubSub topic is being triggered on a schedule, we create a Build Trigger that will respond to it.

The build trigger for a GitHub source is shown below - it uses a parameter sourceToBuild to specify which git repo to build upon:

# no regex allowed for sourceToBuild repo objects
gh <- cr_buildtrigger_repo("MarkEdmondson1234/googleCloudRunner", branch = "master")

pubsub_sub <- cr_buildtrigger_pubsub(topic)

                name = "targets-scheduled-demo",
                sourceToBuild = gh,
                trigger = pubsub_sub)

In summary the GCP resources you now have should be:

  1. A PubSub topic via googlePubsubR::topics_get("target_pubsub_schedule")
  2. A scheduler triggering that topic:

name:  projects/your-project/locations/europe-west1/jobs/target_pubsub_schedule 
state:  ENABLED 
pubsubTarget.topicName:  projects/your-project/topics/target_pubsub_schedule  InByb2plY3RzL21hcmstZWRtb25kc29uLWdkZS90b3BpY3MvdGFyZ2V0X3B1YnN1Yl9zY2hlZHVsZSI= (unencoded):  "projects/your-project/topics/target_pubsub_schedule" 
userUpdateTime:  2022-01-20T15:55:28Z 
schedule:  15 4 * * * 
scheduleTime: 2022-01-26T03:15:00.867249Z 
timezone:  Europe/Copenhagen
  1. A build trigger triggered by the PubSub and showing the sourceToBuild:

id:  8c4f3447-b718-4252-9b6a-45a504730de2 
name:  targets-scheduled-demo 
createdTime:  2022-01-20T21:32:00.603354443Z 
filename:  cloudbuild_targets.yaml 
sourceToBuild.ref:  refs/heads/master 
sourceToBuild.repoType: GITHUB 
topic:  projects/your-project/topics/target_pubsub_schedule 
subscription:  projects/123434564/subscriptions/gcb-targets-scheduled-demo 

You can modify each of these moving parts independently, for example swapping the pubsub for a Cloud Storage event that triggers many builds, or parametrising your PubSub trigger to trigger different behaviour. It is recommend for the first attempt to keep it simple with a one-to-one relationship between builds, pubsub topics and triggers.

  1. You should see successful builds and can check the status of the last build via cr_buildtrigger_logs() which downloads the last build of the given build trigger:

[1] "starting build \"b3a2c366-3280-4ecb-a7c3-9916233e2dc7\""                                                                                 
[2] ""                                     
[96] "Step #1 - \"file1\":"                                                                                  
[97] "Step #1 - \"file1\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                                
[98] "Step #1 - \"file1\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                    
[99] "Finished Step #1 - \"file1\""                                                                                                            
[100] "Starting Step #2 - \"input1\""                                                                                                           
[101] "Step #2 - \"input1\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                      
[102] "Step #2 - \"input1\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                               
[103] "Step #2 - \"input1\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                              
[104] "Step #2 - \"input1\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                   
[105] "Finished Step #2 - \"input1\""                                                                                                           
[106] "Starting Step #3 - \"result1\""                                                                                                          
[107] "Starting Step #6 - \"result4\""                                                                                                          
[108] "Starting Step #5 - \"result3\""                                                                                                          
[109] "Starting Step #4 - \"result2\""                                                                                                          
[110] "Step #4 - \"result2\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                     
[111] "Step #6 - \"result4\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                     
[112] "Step #5 - \"result3\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                     
[113] "Step #3 - \"result1\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                     
[114] "Step #5 - \"result3\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                              
[115] "Step #5 - \"result3\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                             
[116] "Step #5 - \"result3\": ✔ skip target result3"                                                                                            
[117] "Step #5 - \"result3\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                  
[118] "Finished Step #5 - \"result3\""                                                                                                          
[119] "Step #3 - \"result1\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                              
[120] "Step #3 - \"result1\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                             
[121] "Step #3 - \"result1\": ✔ skip target result1"                                                                                            
[122] "Step #3 - \"result1\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                  
[123] "Step #4 - \"result2\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                              
[124] "Step #4 - \"result2\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                             
[125] "Step #4 - \"result2\": ✔ skip target result2"                                                                                            
[126] "Step #4 - \"result2\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                  
[127] "Finished Step #3 - \"result1\""                                                                                                          
[128] "Step #6 - \"result4\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                              
[129] "Step #6 - \"result4\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                             
[130] "Step #6 - \"result4\": ✔ skip target result4"                                                                                            
[131] "Step #6 - \"result4\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                  
[132] "Finished Step #4 - \"result2\""                                                                                                          
[133] "Finished Step #6 - \"result4\""                                                                                                          
[134] "Starting Step #7 - \"merge1\""                                                                                                           
[135] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": Already have image (with digest):"                                                      
[136] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target file1"                                                                                               
[137] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target input1"                                                                                              
[138] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target result1"                                                                                             
[139] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target result2"                                                                                             
[140] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target result3"                                                                                             
[141] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target result4"                                                                                             
[142] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip target merge1"                                                                                              
[143] "Step #7 - \"merge1\": ✔ skip pipeline"                                                                                                   
[144] "Finished Step #7 - \"merge1\""                                                                                                           
[145] "Starting Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\""                                                                                                 
[146] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Already have image (with digest):"                       
[147] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file://buildtime.txt [Content-Type=text/plain]..."                                               
[148] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": / [0 files][    0.0 B/   29.0 B]                                                "                        
[149] "/ [1 files][   29.0 B/   29.0 B]                                                "                                                        
[150] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Operation completed over 1 objects/29.0 B.                                       "                       
[151] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file:///workspace/_targets/buildtime.txt [Content-Type=text/plain]..."                           
[152] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": / [0 files][    0.0 B/   29.0 B]                                                "                        
[153] "Copying file:///workspace/_targets/meta/progress [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."                                             
[154] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file:///workspace/_targets/meta/meta [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."                 
[155] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": / [0 files][    0.0 B/  273.0 B]                                                "                        
[156] "/ [0 files][    0.0 B/  1.3 KiB]                                                "                                                        
[157] "Copying file:///workspace/_targets/objects/result3 [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."                                           
[158] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file:///workspace/_targets/meta/process [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."              
[159] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file:///workspace/_targets/objects/result4 [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."           
[160] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": Copying file:///workspace/_targets/objects/input1 [Content-Type=application/octet-stream]..."            
[161] "Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\": / [0 files][    0.0 B/  1.4 KiB]                                                "                        
[200] "Finished Step #8 - \"Upload Artifacts\""                                                                                                 
[201] "PUSH"                                                                                                                                    
[202] "DONE"